RAKHINE STATE, MYANMAR

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Rakhine State has an area of 36,762 square kilometers (14,194 sq. mi) and its capital is Sittwe. The population of the state is 3,188,807. Different people of different religion live here. The religions include Theravada Buddhism, Islam, Hinduism and others. Also, the ethnic composition includes Rakhine, Kaman, Mro, Rohingya, Khami and others.

LOCATION: Western coastal state of Rakhine

ISSUES: The Rohingya are often described as “the world’s most persecuted minority”. They are an ethnic group, majority of whom are Muslim, who have lived for centuries with the majority Buddhists in Myanmar. Currently, there are about 1.1 million Rohingya who live in the Southeast Asian country. The Rohingya speak Rohingya or Ruaingga, a dialect that is distinct to others spoken in Rakhine State and throughout Myanmar. Out of 135 official ethnic groups the Rohingya’s are not considered as one of the country’s ethnic groups and have been denied citizenship in Myanmar since 1982, which has effectively left them stateless.

The Rohingya Muslims have no freedom of movement, access to food, water, sanitation, healthcare, education. Now the Rohingyas are facing the final stages of genocides.

DETAILS OF REFUGEE CRISIS:

NUMBER OF REFUGEES: 2,661,000 people.

HOST COUNTRIES: Bangladesh, India, Pakistan, Saudi Arabia, Oman, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia.

POLITICAL CONFLICTS:

The political stakeholders include-

  • Arakan League for Democracy.
  • Arakan Liberation Party.
  • Rohingya Solidarity Organization.
  • Chin National Party.
  • Chin Progressive Party.
  • Communist Party of Burma (banned)
  • Confederate Farmers Party.
  • The National Myanmar Army.
  • Democratic Party for a New Society.

DEATH TOLL: 2000+ people.

ECONOMIC IMPACT:Due to the movement, a huge impact has taken place in terms of the economic loss for the Rohingyas. Loss of home, loss of work and a displacement of lifestyles, customs and traditions. The conditions are becoming critical day by day.

ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT:  In a lot of cases, burnt villages and crop fields have destroyed natural habitat in Rakhine State. In Bangladesh, the influx of Rohingya refugees has added extra anthropocentric pressure on the environment as evidenced by the clearing of a 15 year long forestation project in just under 57 days. Along with this, the public health impact on host nations has been huge as many of the refugees are not vaccinated and have carried over diseases such as cholera, malaria and polio. The poor conditions of the refugee camps also makes it a fertile breeding ground for a lot of these mass-transmittable diseases.

IMPACT ON WOMEN: Murder, rape, sexual assault, malnutrition and psychological trauma.  Pregnant women face miscarriages due to lack of care, lack of hygiene and sanitation.

LOCATION OF ECONOMIC ZONE: Maungdaw economic zone, located in Kanyin Chaung, SEZ (Special Economic Zone) located in Kyaukphyu town.

CONVENOR OF ECONOMIC ZONE: Rakhine State Government.

Invested Stakeholder
i)  U Kyaw Aye Thein, State minister for finance, revenue, economics and planning, Rakhine State Government.

ii) Unlike other SEZs such as Dawei and Thilawa, the one in Kyaukphyu will be run entirely by private sector firms.

AP Explains: What’s behind Rohingya exodus from Myanmar (September 2017)

The Atlantic: Burma Doesn’t Want the Rohingya but Insists on Keeping Them (June 2015)

Al Jazeera: Myanmar Expelled Majority of its Rohingya Population (September 2017)

The Guardian: Massacre at Tulatoli (September 2017)

Al Jazeera: Who are the Rohingya? (September 2017)

VOA: Myanmar Struggles With its Rohingya (September 2017)

National Geographic: Rohingya Refugee Crisis in Burma (September 2017)

CNN: From horror to hopelessness (July 2016)

Al Jazeera: Rohingya- Myanmar’s Outcasts (Jan 2012) 

Dawn: The Rohingya of Pakistan (September 2017) 

The Economist: The Rohingya Refugee Crisis is the Worst in Decades (September 2017)

BBC Bangla: জেনে রাখুন: রোহিঙ্গা ইতিহাস নিয়ে সাতটি বিচিত্র তথ্য (December 2016)

কালের কণ্ঠ: রোহিঙ্গা নির্যাতনের ইতিহাস (September 2017)

দৈনিক সংগ্রামঃ রোহিঙ্গা মুসলমানদের ওপর নির্যাতনের দীর্ঘ ইতিহাস (December 2016)

Teknaf News 71:  রোহিঙ্গাদের ইতিহাস (September 2017)

যুগান্তর: রোহিঙ্গা সংকট : সমাধান কোথায়? (September 2017)

বাংলা ট্রিবিউন: রোহিঙ্গা সমস্যা সমাধানে কার কী প্রস্তাব (September 2017)

BBC Bangla: রোহিঙ্গা সমস্যাকে কিভাবে দেখছে ইয়াঙ্গনের লোকেরা? (September 2017)

R Vision: Rohingya persecution since 1990 (September 2017)

Irrawady: History Behind the Rakhine State Conflict (September 2017)

DW: A History of Forced Exodus (September 2017)

Brookings: No Simple Solution to Rohingya Crisis (September 2017)

Atlanta Journal-Constitution: Who are the Rohingya? (October 2017)

সচলায়তন:  রোহিঙ্গা: ইতিহাস, সমস্যা ও সমাধান (October 2012)

The Wire: Being Rohingya in Myanmar (September 2017)

Scribd: The Timeline of Burma’s Rohingya In Arakan (September 2017)

The Diplomat: The Truth About Myanmar’s Rohingya (March 2016)

Council of Foreign Relations: The Rohingya Crisis (October 2017)

The Wire: Silence Then, Silence Now (September 2017)

New Age: Hindus lay down lives for Muslims in Myanmar (August 2017)

Washington Post: How Burma’s Rohingya crisis went from bad to worse (September, 2017)

The Daily Star: Footage of Rohingya villages in flames (September, 2017)

SMH: Myanmar says more than 170 Rohingya villages now empty (September, 2017)

The Daily Star: ‘Leave, or we will kill you all’ (September, 2017)

The star online: Gang rape horrors haunt Rohingya refugees (September, 2017)

BBC: ‘Mass Hindu grave’ found in Myanmar’s Rakhine state (September, 2017)

Al Jazeera: Rohingya refugees share stories of sexual violence (September, 2017) 

Dhaka Tribune: Who really attacked the Rohingya Hindus in Rakhine?

The Wire: Stories of Unspeakable Violence Faced by Rohingya Refugee Women (October, 2017) 

Telegraph: The photographs that tell the full story of the Rohingya refugee crisis (October, 2017)

Prothom Alo: মারাত্মক পরিবেশ বিপর্যয়ের আশঙ্কা||চার হাজার একর পাহাড় কেটে রোহিঙ্গা বসতি (September, 2017)

Dhaka Tribune: Rohingya influx: 15-year-old forestation project destroyed in 57 days (October, 2017)

Bangla Tribune: পাহাড় কাটলে পাহাড় হবে: মায়া (October, 2017)

Prothom Alo: বাংলাদেশে ঢোকার অপেক্ষায় হাজারো রোহিঙ্গা (August, 2017)

The Daily Star: 400,000 Rohingyas enter Bangladesh since Aug 25: Unicef (September, 2017)

Al Jazeera: UN: Rohingya exodus to Bangladesh exceeds 400,000 (September, 2017)

The Guardian: Bangladesh to build one of world’s largest refugee camps for 800,000 Rohingya (October, 2017)

First Post: Rohingya Muslims in India: How will India deport 40,000 ‘illegal’ refugees to Myanmar when it can’t even deport 11? (September, 2017)

The Daily Star: UN migration agency appeals for USD18m for Rohingya refugees (September, 2017)

ABC News: Rohingya refugees: ‘No words’ to describe Bangladesh camps, Red Cross says (September, 2017)

The Daily Star: Rohingya crisis: Buddhists curb Prabarana Purnima as protest (September, 2017)

New York Times: A War of Words Puts Facebook at the Center of Myanmar’s Rohingya Crisis (October, 2017)